Reference Standards

The following is a list of standards used as references for our work.

IEEE 11073-10101

The ISO/IEEE 11073 Medical/Health Device Communication Standards are a family of ISO, IEEE, and CEN joint standards addressing the interoperability of medical devices. IEEE 11073-10101 specifically addresses nomenclature. The standards enable communication between medical devices and external computer systems with a focus on client-related (personal) and vital signs data. A Domain Information Model (DIM) is utilized along with service and communications models to represent and define acquired data. Many of the measurements and devices used in critical care have been standardized within the IEEE standards with the exception of many brain-focused devices.
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LOINC

Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) are self-defining names for laboratory and clinical observations included as a reference terminology in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The LOINC database provides a set of universal names and ID codes for identifying standards including HL7. LOINC also enables interoperability through exchange and storage of clinical results coming from many different independent sources in an understandable way. LOINC has codes for clinical observations including vital signs, hemodynamics, intake/output, cardiac echo, radiology studies, clinical documents, select survey assessment instruments, and many other clinical observations. Numerous measurements and devices that Moberg interfaces with have LOINC codes with the exception of many brain-focused measurements.
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SNOMED

Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) is a reference terminology standard from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). SNOMED standardizes the way healthcare terminology and data is recorded. It aims to facilitate the coding, retrieving, analysis, aggregation, indexing, and the exchanging of clinical information across health care entities. SNOMED is relatively hierarchical in structure with detailed concepts and domains. There are 19 top-level domains as well as concepts which are clinical definitions or entities. Each concept is associated with a ConceptID, a unique numeric identifier that is permanent and has no implicit meaning. The focus of SNOMED is on diseases, and many of the measurements and devices that Moberg interfaces with are not standardized within SNOMED.
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IHE-PCD Rosetta Mapping

Rosetta Terminology Mapping is based on parameter lists submitted by several patient care device manufacturers, cross referenced to the MDC nomenclature standard. It allows communicating information systems to use a uniform method of identifying measurements commonly sent by devices to information systems such as Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems. The Rosetta Terminology Mapping profile is to link the use of existing ISO/IEEE 11073-10101 nomenclature terms by systems compliant with IHE PCD profiles. Many of the measurements and devices that Moberg interfaces with have been standardized with the help of this standard with the exception of many brain-focused measurements.
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DICOM

Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is an interoperability standard that was developed to facilitate the handling, sharing, storage and printing of medical imaging information and allows for the integration of different devices into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). DICOM files are embedded with clinical data as well as imaging content and includes a header that contains various attributes such as patient info and imaging file dimensions. DICOM’s functions are to work with the transmission of images, query and retrieval, performance, workflow management and quality of images. Many of the measurements and devices that Moberg interfaces with are not standardized within DICOM.
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